Kinesis Scaling, Resharding and Parallel Processing

  • Kinesis Resharding enables you to increase or decrease the number of shards in a stream in order to adapt to changes in the rate of data flowing through the stream.
  • Resharding is always pairwise. You cannot split into more than two shards in a single operation, and you cannot merge more than two shards in a single operation.
  • The Kinesis Client Library (KCL) tracks the shards in the stream using an Amazon DynamoDB table, and adapts to changes in the number of shards that result from resharding. When new shards are created as a result of resharding, the KCL discovers the new shards and populates new rows in the table. 
  • The workers automatically discover the new shards and create processors to handle the data from them. The KCL also distributes the shards in the stream across all the available workers and record processors.
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  • When you use the KCL, you should ensure that the number of instances does not exceed the number of shards (except for failure standby purposes). 
    • Each shard is processed by exactly one KCL worker and has exactly one corresponding record processor
    • One worker can process any number of shards.
  • You can scale your application to use more than one EC2 instance when processing a stream. By doing so, you allow the record processors in each instance to work in parallel. When the KCL worker starts up on the scaled instance, it load-balances with the existing instances, so now each instance handles the same amount of shards.
  • To scale up processing in your application:
    • Increase the instance size (because all record processors run in parallel within a process)
    • Increase the number of instances up to the maximum number of open shards (because shards can be processed independently)
    • Increase the number of shards (which increases the level of parallelism)