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AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate Exam Study Path

If you are a Systems Administrator or a DevOps Engineer, then this certification will test your knowledge on these areas in AWS. Your experience in these fields will come in handy in passing the exam, but this should be complemented by actual AWS SysOps knowledge. In the AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate Exam (or AWS SOA for short), the questions including the exam labs will test your ability to perform the following:

  • Deploy, manage, and operate scalable, highly available, and fault-tolerant systems on AWS 
  • Implement and control the flow of data to and from AWS 
  • Select the appropriate AWS service based on compute, data, or security requirements 
  • Identify appropriate use of AWS operational best practices 
  • Estimate AWS usage costs and identify operational cost control mechanisms 
  • Migrate on-premises workloads to AWS 

Given the scope of the questions and exam labs, you should learn the concepts of the AWS architecture, the AWS Operational Framework, as well as the AWS CLI and AWS SDK/API tools. Having prior knowledge of fundamental networking and security will also be very valuable. This guide aims to provide you a straightforward guide when reviewing for this exam.

Study Materials

The FREE AWS Exam Readiness video course, official AWS sample questions, whitepapers, AWS Documentation, AWS cheat sheets, and AWS practice exams will be your primary study materials for this exam. There are multiple papers that you should read and familiarize yourself with as a SysOps Administrator.

Having an AWS account you can use will help ingest the different concepts within these whitepapers. Since the exam itself contains multiple scenario questions, using the services and applying them in practice yourself will allow you to determine the types of situations they are applied in. 

Exam Readiness AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate

Additional details regarding your AWS SOA exam can be seen in this AWS exam blueprint.

The whitepapers listed below are arranged in such a way that you will learn the concepts first, before proceeding to application and best practices. If you need a refresh on your AWS fundamentals, go check out our guide on the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam before proceeding below.

  1. Amazon Virtual Private Cloud Connectivity OptionsStudy how you can connect different VPCs together, your VPCs to your on-premises network, and vice versa.
  2. Development and Test on AWS – Study how you can leverage AWS to create development and test environments, implement pipelines and automation, and perform different validation tests for your applications.
  3. Backup and Recovery Approaches Using AWS – Learn which AWS services offer backup and restore features. It is also important to know how these backups are stored and secured, and selecting the correct storage options for them.
  4. How AWS Pricing Works – Study the fundamental drivers of cost in AWS, the pricing models of commonly used services in compute, storage, and database, and how to optimize your costs. 
  5. Amazon Web Services: Overview of Security Processes – You should study the different security features in AWS – including infrastructure, account, network, application, and data security. Determine which aspects of security are your responsibilities, and which are AWS’.
  6. Tutorials dojo strip
  7. AWS Security Best Practices – This whitepaper complements the previous. Understand the security best practices and their purpose in your environment. Some services offer more than one form of security feature, such as multiple key management schemes for encryption. It is important that you can determine which form is most suitable to the given scenarios in your exam.
  8. Architecting for the Cloud: AWS Best Practices – Be sure to understand the best practices in AWS since exam questions will focus their scenarios around these best practices. The whitepaper contains a number of design principles with examples for each. 
  9. AWS Well-Architected FrameworkThis whitepaper is one of the most important papers that you should study for the SOA-C02 exam. It discusses the different pillars that make up a well-architected cloud environment. 

Optional whitepapers:

  1. Overview of Deployment Options on AWS – This is an optional whitepaper that you can read to be aware of your deployment options in AWS. There is a chance that this might come up in the exam.
  2. AWS Disaster Recovery Plans – As a SysOps Administrator, you should be familiar with your DR options when outages occur. Having knowledge of DR will determine how fast you can recover your infrastructure.

Also check out this article: Top 5 FREE AWS Review Materials.

AWS Services to Focus On

AWS offers extensive documentation and well-written FAQs for all of their services. These two will be your primary source of information when studying. Furthermore, as an AWS SysOps Administrator, you need to be well-versed in a number of AWS products and services since you will almost always be using them in your work. I recommend checking out Tutorials Dojo’s AWS Cheat Sheets which provides a summarized but highly informative set of notes and tips for your review on these services.

Core services to study:

  1. EC2 – As the most fundamental compute service offered by AWS, you should know about EC2 inside out.
  2. Elastic Load Balancer – Load balancing is very important for a highly available system. Study the different types of ELBs, and the features each of them supports.
  3. Auto Scaling – Study what services in AWS can be auto-scaled, what triggers scaling, and how auto scaling increases/decreases the number of instances.
  4. Elastic Block Store – As the primary storage solution of EC2, study the types of EBS volumes available. Also study how to secure, backup, and restore EBS volumes.
  5. S3 / GlacierStudy the S3 storage types are and what differs between them. Also review the capabilities of S3 such as hosting a static website, securing access to objects using policies, lifecycle policies, etc. Learn as much about S3 as you can.
  6. VPC – Study every service that is used to create a VPC (subnets, route tables, internet gateways, nat gateways, VPN gateways, etc). Also, review the differences between network access control lists and security groups, and during which situations they are applied.
  7. Route 53 – Study the different types of records in Route 53. Study also the different routing policies. Know what hosted zones and domains are.
  8. RDS – Know how each RDS database differs from one another, and how they are different from Aurora. Determine what makes Aurora unique, and when it should be preferred from other databases (in terms of function, speed, cost, etc). Learn about parameter groups, option groups, and subnet groups.
  9. DynamoDB – Consider how DynamoDB compares to RDS, Elasticache, and Redshift. This service is also commonly used for serverless applications along with Lambda.
  10. Elasticache – Familiarize yourself with Elasticache redis and its functions. Determine the areas/services where you can place a caching mechanism to improve data throughput, such as managing the session state of an ELB, optimizing RDS instances, etc.
  11. SQS – Gather info on why SQS is helpful in decoupling systems. Study how messages in the queues are being managed (standard queues, FIFO queues, dead letter queues). Know the differences between SQS, SNS, SES, and Amazon MQ.
  12. SNS – Study the function of SNS and what services can be integrated with it. Also, be familiar with the supported recipients of SNS notifications.
  13. IAM – Services such as IAM Users, Groups, Policies, and Roles are the most important to learn. Study how IAM integrates with other services and how it secures your application through different policies. Also, read on the best practices when using IAM.
  14. CloudWatch – Study how monitoring is done in AWS and what types of metrics are sent to CloudWatch. Also read upon CloudWatch Logs, CloudWatch Alarms, and the custom metrics made available with CloudWatch Agent.
  15. CloudTrail – Familiarize yourself with how CloudTrail works, and what kinds of logs it stores as compared to CloudWatch Logs.
  16. Config – Be familiar with the situations where AWS Config is useful.
  17. CloudFormation – Study how CloudFormation is used to automate infrastructure deployment. Learn the basic makeup of a CloudFormation template, stack, and stack set.
  18. KMS – Familiarize how KMS integrates with other services in storing encryption keys.
  19. Secrets Manager –  Understand how Secrets Manager stores secrets and how you can use them with other AWS services.
  20. Parameter Store – Know when to use Parameter store and how compute services like EC2, ECS, and Lambda utilize it.
  21. DataSync – Familiarize which AWS services can be used to migrate data from an on-premises data center.

Some additional services we recommend to review:

  1. Trusted Advisor
  2. Systems Manager
  3. CodeDeploy
  4. CodePipeline
  5. CloudFront
  6. Cost and Billing Management Console
  7. OpsWorks
  8. Direct Connect

For the exam version (SOA-C02), you should also know the following services:

  1. Amazon FSx for Windows File Server and Amazon FSx for Lustre
  2. AWS Backup
  3. EC2 Image Builder
  4. S3 Transfer Acceleration
  5. AWS Global Accelerator
  6. RDS Proxy
  7. IAM Access Analyzer

Exam Labs

The SOA-CO2 includes an exam labs section where you have to perform SysOps related tasks on the AWS Management Console. To prepare for this, make sure to play around with the different AWS services covered in the exam. You don’t need to memorize all the configurations for each service. But you have to be really good at navigating the AWS Management console to understand where you can configure the requirements in each exam lab. Focus on preparing for exam labs on setting up a VPC, CloudWatch, Load Balancer, Auto Scaling, CloudFormation, and S3.

View our sample exam lab here.

Here is a sample exam lab video walkthrough:

Common Exam Scenarios



Monitoring, Logging, and Remediation

You need to set up an alert that notifies the IT manager about EC2 instances service limits.

Use Amazon CloudWatch Events to detect and react to changes in the status of Trusted Advisor checks

You need to track the deletion and rotation of CMKs.

Use AWS CloudTrail to log AWS KMS API calls

You need to investigate if the traffic is reaching the EC2 instance.

Use VPC flow logs

You need to ensure that the SSH protocol is always disabled on private servers.

Use AWS Config Rules

You need to retrieve the instance metadata of an EC2 instance.

You have to monitor the CPU usage of a single process in your EC2 instance.

Use the CloudWatch Agent procstat plugin to monitor system utilization.

You need to generate a report on the replication and encryption status of all of the objects stored in the S3 bucket.

Use S3 Inventory

Metric to use to alarm when all instances behind an ALB becomes unhealthy

AWS/ApplicationELB HealthyHostCount <= 0

Monitor restricted CIDR changes on a security group and remove them automatically.

Use AWS Config to evaluate the security group and AWS Systems Manager Automation document to remove the unwanted CIDR range. 

Monitor CreateUser API call via email

Utilize Amazon EventBridge, declare CloudTrail as a source, and CreateUser as an event pattern. Create an SNS topic and set it as an event target on Amazon EventBridge.

Reliability and Business Continuity

When the incoming message traffic increases, the EC2 instances fall behind and it takes too long to process the messages.

Create an Auto Scaling group that can scale out based on the number of messages in the queue.

You need to log the client’s IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses that go through your Application Load Balancer.

Enable access logging in ALB and store the logs on an S3 bucket.

You need to determine which cipher is used for the SSL connection in your ELB.

Enable Server Order Preference

You need to monitor the total number of requests or connections in your load balancer.

Monitor the SurgeQueueLength metric

You need to ensure that the backups of an Amazon Redshift cluster are always available.

Configure the Amazon Redshift cluster to automatically copy snapshots of a cluster to another region.

Highly available File Server that supports SMB and manages file permissions using Windows Access Control List (ACL).

Multi-AZ Amazon FSx for Windows File Server

Slow load time when uploading objects to S3

S3 Transfer Acceleration

PercentIOLimit metric hits 100% on EFS

Create a new Max I/O performance mode EFS file system and migrate data to the new file system using AWS DataSync.

Must ensure data integrity when performing EBS backups

Build a Lambda function that uses CreateImage API to generate AMI of the EC2 instance and include a reboot parameter. Create an Amazon EventBridge rule to execute the Lambda function daily.

Deployment, Provisioning, and Automation

You must remotely execute shell scripts and securely manage the configuration of EC2 instances.

Use Systems Manager Run Command

You need to identify the configuration changes in the CloudFormation resources.

Use drift detection

Requires a CloudFormation template that can be reused for multiple environments. If the template has been updated, all the stack that is referencing it will automatically use the updated configuration.

Use Nested Stacks

You need to automate the process of updating the CloudFomration templates to map to the latest AMI IDs.

Use CloudFormation with Systems Manager Parameter Store

The eviction count in Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached has exceeded its threshold.

Scale the cluster by increasing the number of nodes.

You need to provide each department a new AWS account with governance guardrails and a defined baseline in place.

Set up AWS Control Tower

An S3 bucket must be configured to move the objects older than 60 days to the Infrequent Access storage class.

Set up a lifecycle policy

You need to monitor all the COPY and UNLOAD traffic in the Redshift cluster.

Enable Enhanced VPC routing on the Redshift cluster.

A total of 500 TB of data needs to be transferred to Amazon S3 in the fastest way. 

Use multiple AWS Snowball devices.

TLS certificate should be renewed automatically.

Request a public certificate via AWS Certificate Manager (ACM)

Get cost expenses of each AWS user account.

Enable the createdBy tag in the Billing and Management console

Provisioning instances on ASG takes time because of software dependencies installed via the UserData script.

EC2  Image Builder

Get cost expenses of each AWS user account.

Enable the createdBy tag in the Billing and Management console

Security and Compliance

You have to rotate an existing CMK with imported key material every 6 months

Create a new CMK with imported key material and update the key ID to point to the new CMK

A company needs to restrict access to the data in an S3 bucket.

Use S3 ACL and bucket policy

Mitigate malicious attacks such as SQL injection and DDoS attacks from unknown origins.

Use AWS WAF and Shield

You need to define an IAM policy to enable the user to pass a role to an AWS service.

Define iam:PassRole in the IAM policy

You need to create a solution that allows multiple EC2 instances in a private subnet to use AWS KMS and the traffic must not pass through the public Internet.

Configure a VPC endpoint

You need to encrypt all the objects at rest in your S3 bucket.

Use SS3-S3, SSE-KMS or SSE-C

Enable authentication to AWS services using Active Directory Federation Services.

Amazon Cognito user pool

Create a bucket policy to only allow AWS accounts in the organization to access an S3 bucket.

Set principal to (*) and create a condition for PrincipalOrgId

Read, update, delete messages from SQS queues from an instance.

Create a policy with sqs:SendMessage, sqs:ReceiveMessage, sqs:DeleteMessage, and attach the policy to a new role that can perform API calls to AWS. Associate the new role to the instance.

RDS credentials should not be hardcoded on Lambda functions.

Use Secrets Manager to store credentials.

Networking and Content Delivery

You need to allow the EC2 instances in your VPC that support IPv6 to connect to the Internet but block any incoming connection.

Set up an egress-only Internet gateway

You have to establish a dedicated connection between their on-premises network and their Amazon VPC.

Set up a Direct Connect connection

You need to increase the cache hit ratio for a CloudFront web distribution.

Add a Cache-Control max-age and increase the TTL by specifying the longest value for max-age

You need to ensure that users are consistently directed to the AWS region nearest to them.

Set up a Route 53 Geoproximity routing policy

A company plans to implement a hybrid cloud architecture. You need to allow your resources on AWS the connectivity to external networks.

Assign an Internet Gateway to the VPC
Create a Virtual Private Gateway

Users being served desktop version on mobile phones.

Add a User-Agent header to the list of origin custom header on CloudFront.

DNS record at the apex domain.

ALIAS record

Cost and Performance Optimization

You have to automate the process of patching managed instances with security-related updates.

Use AWS Systems Manager Patch Manager

You need to analyze the data hosted in Amazon S3 using standard SQL.

Use Amazon Athena

Improving the site speed of a static S3 web hosting with customers around the globe

Create a CloudFront web distribution and set Amazon S3 as the origin.

You need to implement a solution to enforce the tagging of all instances that will be launched in the VPC.

Use AWS Service Catalog TagOption library

You need to get billing alerts once it reaches a certain limit.

Enable billing alerts in Account Preferences of the AWS Console.

Resize an Amazon Elasticache for Redis cluster.

Use online resizing for Amazon Elasticache Redis cluster.

No sharing of Reserved Instance (RI) discounts between AWS accounts in the Organization.

Disable RI discount sharing via management account and provision instances using individual AWS accounts.

Validate Your Knowledge

Once you have finished your review and you are more than confident of your knowledge, test yourself with some practice exams available online. AWS offers a practice exam that you can try out at their aws.training portal. Tutorials Dojo also offers a top-notch set of AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate practice tests. Each test contains unique questions that will surely help verify if you have missed out on anything important that might appear on your exam. You can also pair our practice exams with our AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate Exam Study Guide eBook to further help in your exam preparations.

AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate New

Sample Practice Test Questions:

Question 1

A company plans to expand its use of AWS services across its product portfolios. To ensure separation of business processes for billing, security, and compliance, the SysOps Administrator must provide each department with new AWS accounts having governance guardrails and a defined baseline in place. An efficient and scalable provisioning process is required to optimize the workflow and save time.

Which of the following options can satisfy the given requirement?

  1. Use AWS Config and AWS Organizations to automatically provision new resources and accounts.
  2. Use AWS Control Tower to generate templates in the Account Factory and to provision new accounts in AWS Service Catalog.
  3. Use AWS OpsWorks for Chef Automate and bootstrapping scripts to handle the configuration management and provisioning tasks.
  4. Use AWS Service Catalog and AWS Config to automate account creation and configuration.

Correct Answer: 2

AWS Control Tower provides a single location to easily set up your new well-architected multi-account environment and govern your AWS workloads with rules for security, operations, and internal compliance. You can automate the setup of your AWS environment with best-practices blueprints for multi-account structure, identity, access management, and account provisioning workflow. For ongoing governance, you can select and apply pre-packaged policies enterprise-wide or to specific groups of accounts.

AWS Control Tower provides three methods for creating member accounts:

– Through the Account Factory console that is part of AWS Service Catalog.

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– Through the Enroll account feature within AWS Control Tower.

– From your AWS Control Tower landing zone’s management account, using Lambda code and appropriate IAM roles.

AWS Control Tower offers “guardrails” for ongoing governance of your AWS environment. Guardrails provide governance controls by preventing deployment of resources that don’t conform to selected policies or detecting non-conformance of provisioned resources. AWS Control Tower automatically implements guardrails using multiple building blocks such as AWS CloudFormation to establish a baseline, AWS Organizations service control policies (SCPs) to prevent configuration changes, and AWS Config rules to continuously detect non-conformance.

In this scenario, the requirement is to provide each department with AWS accounts that have governance guardrails and defined baseline in place. To save time and resources, you can use AWS Control Tower to automate the account creation. With the appropriate user group permissions, you can specify standardized baselines and network configurations for all accounts in the organization.

Hence, the correct answer is: Use AWS Control Tower to generate templates in the Account Factory and to provision new accounts in AWS Service Catalog.

The option that says: Use AWS Service Catalog and AWS Config to automate account creation and configuration is incorrect. Although you can use AWS Service Catalog to create and manage catalogs of your IT services, it still does not offer “guardrails” for ongoing governance of your AWS environment. Moreover, AWS Config is mainly used to evaluate the configuration of various AWS services in an AWS environment and not to provision new accounts.

The option that says: Use AWS Config and AWS Organizations to automatically provision new resources and accounts is incorrect. AWS Config cannot provision accounts. Furthermore, AWS Organizations do not fully provide governance guardrails, unlike AWS Control Tower.

The option that says: Use AWS OpsWorks for Chef Automate and bootstrapping scripts to handle the configuration management and provisioning tasks is incorrect because AWS OpsWorks is not a suitable service to be used in provisioning new AWS accounts. The common use case for AWS OpsWorks for Chef Automate is to automate operational tasks on Amazon EC2 instances and on-premises servers.



Question 2

An organization hosts its operating system, database, and application on an Amazon EC2 instance backed by multiple attached Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes. The SysOps administrator plans to automate the process of taking daily Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). When performing the backups, he has to ensure the file system integrity of created images.

What should the SysOps Administrator do to meet these requirements?

  1. Build a Lambda function using the CreateImage API that will take an AMI of the EC2 instance configured with no-reboot parameter. Then, create a rule to invoke the Lambda function daily on Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events).
  2. Using the CreateImage API, build a Lambda function that will take an AMI of the EC2 instance and include a reboot parameter. Then, create a rule to invoke the Lambda function daily on Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events).
  3. Using AWS Backup, create a backup plan that runs daily. Assign the resource ID of the instance and set the no-reboot parameter.
  4. Using AWS Backup, create a backup plan that runs daily. Assign the resource ID of the instance and set the reboot parameter.

Correct Answer: 2

Using AWS Backup, you can schedule or perform on-demand backup jobs that include entire EC2 instances and Windows applications running on Amazon EC2, along with associated configuration data. This limits the need for you to interact with the storage (Amazon EBS) volume. Similarly, you can restore an entire Amazon EC2 instance from a single recovery point. A backup job can only have one resource. So you can have a job to back up an EC2 instance, and it will back up the root volume, all data volumes, and the associated instance configurations.

AWS Backup does not reboot EC2 instances at any time.

AWS Backup follows the default mechanism of taking backups. In this case, the default mechanism for backing up EBS volumes is to backup with no-reboot behavior. This means that AWS Backup will not be able to help you create an AMI that guarantees file system integrity since you need to reboot the instance to do this.

To maintain the file integrity of images created, you have to apply the reboot parameter when taking images.

So, the best answer here is to create a Lambda function that calls the CreateImage API with a reboot parameter and then schedule the function to run on a daily basis via Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events).

Hence, the correct answer is: Using the CreateImage API, build a Lambda function that will take an AMI of the EC2 instance and include a reboot parameter. Then, create a rule to invoke the Lambda function daily on Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events).

The option that says: Build a Lambda function using the CreateImage API that will take an AMI of the EC2 instance configured with no-reboot parameter. Then, create a rule to invoke the Lambda function daily on Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) is incorrect because you need to reboot the instance if you want to make sure that file system integrity is guaranteed when taking the image.

The option that says: Using AWS Backup, create a backup plan that runs daily. Assign the resource ID of the instance and set the no-reboot parameter is incorrect because this will not maintain file system integrity for the images you take.

The option that says: Using AWS Backup, create a backup plan that runs daily. Assign the resource ID of the instance and set the reboot parameter is incorrect because you can’t set the reboot parameter on AWS Backup. You need to use the CreateImage API together with Lambda where you can set the reboot parameter when taking backups.


Check out our AWS Lambda Cheat Sheet:

Click here for more AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate practice exam questions.

Check out our other AWS practice test courses here:Tutorials Dojo AWS Practice Tests

Additional Training Materials: High-Quality Video Courses

There are a few top-rated AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate video courses that you can check out as well, which can help in your exam preparations. The list below is constantly updated based on feedback from our students on which course/s helped them the most during their exams.

Based on consensus, any of these video courses plus our practice test course and our AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate Study Guide eBook were enough to pass this tough exam.

It is best to get some rest before the day of your exam and review any notes that you have written down. If you have done well in the practice tests, go over the questions where you made a mistake and understand why so. If you are not feeling so confident after trying the practice tests, you can just reschedule your exam and take your time preparing. The AWS SOA certification is one of the most sought-after certifications in the SysOps Administration field. The exam will not be easy to pass, but it’ll be worth it when you do.

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Written by: Adrian Formaran

As a Computer Scientist and a proud Iskolar ng Bayan (university scholar), Adrian has a passion for learning cutting edge technologies, such as blockchain, cloud services, and information security, and is passionate about teaching these to others as well. He also has a deep love for mathematics, sciences, and philosophy. A gamer at heart.

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