AWS CloudHSM

  • A computing device that enables you to provision and manage your own single-tenant HSMs for the generation and use of encryption keys.

  • A hardware security module (HSM) performs cryptographic operations and provides secure storage for cryptographic keys.

  • You can perform the following cryptographic tasks:

    • Generate, store, import, export, and manage cryptographic keys.

    • Use symmetric and asymmetric algorithms to encrypt and decrypt your data.

    • Compute message digests and hash-based message authentication codes using cryptographic hash functions.

    • Cryptographically sign data and verify signatures.

    • You can generate cryptographically secure random data.

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Use Case

  • Offload SSL/TLS processing for web servers.

  • Protect private keys for an issuing certificate authority (CA).

  • Enable transparent data encryption (TDE) for Oracle databases.

Concepts

  • Clusters

    • A collection of individual HSMs.

    • Other HSMs are automatically kept up to date, when you perform a task on one HSM in a cluster.

    • You can create a cluster that has 1 to 28 HSM and place the HSMs in different AZs in a region.

    • Cluster provides higher performance as you add more HSMs.

    • When you add a new HSM to a cluster:

      • AWS CloudHSM backup all the keys, users, and policies on an existing HSM.

      • Restores the backup onto the new HSM to keep HSMs in sync.

    • Supports cluster load balancing.

  • Backups

    • You can do periodic backups of users, keys, and policies in your cluster.

    • Backups are stored in an S3 bucket in the same region as your cluster.

    • Default backup retention policy for a cluster is 90 days.

    • You can only restore backups onto AWS-owned HSMs made by the same manufacturer.

    • Supports copying of backups across AWS regions.

    • The HSM encrypts all data using ephemeral backup key (EBK) before sending it to CloudHSM.

    • To encrypt the EBK, the HSM will use a persistent backup key (PBK).

    • Generate a PBK with a key derivation function (KDF). The inputs to the KDF include the following:

      • Manufacturer key backup key (MKBK)

      • AWS key backup key (AKBK)

  • HSM users

    • HSM users are distinct from IAM users.

    • To create and manage users on HSM, you need a CloudHSM Management Utility (CMU).

    • An HSM user has a type that defines which operations they can perform on HSM.

      • Precrypto officer (PRECO) – temporary user on the first HSM in a cluster.

      • Crypto officer (CO | PCO) – performs user management operations and supports 2FA.

      • Crypto user (CU) – performs key management and cryptographic operations.

      • Appliance user (AU) – performs cloning and synchronization operations.

    • Supports quorum authentication.

  • Keys

    • Only a CU can create a key in CloudHSM.

    • You can use the following to manage keys on HSM:

      • PKCS #11 library

      • JCE provider

      • CNG and KSP providers

      • key_mgmt_util

    • Use syncKey command in CMU to synchronize keys between clusters.

  • CLI tools

    • CloudHSM Management Utility (CMU)

      • The cloudhsm_mgmt_util helps COs manage users in HSMs.

      • It also has a command that allows CUs to share keys, get and set key attributes.

    • Key Management Utility (KMU)

      • A key_mgmt_util allows CUs to manage keys on HSMs.

  • Supports tagging of CloudHSM resources.

Monitoring

  • To monitor diagnostic and troubleshooting information from applications you create, use Client SDK logging.

  • If you want to monitor API calls like creation & deletion of clusters, HSM, and resource tags, use AWS CloudTrail.

  • With Amazon CloudWatch, you can monitor the following:

    • Health of cluster

    • Logs from HSM instances

Pricing

  • You are charged per hour for each HSM you launch.

References:
https://aws.amazon.com/cloudhsm/
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cloudhsm/latest/userguide/introduction.html

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