Google Cloud Storage (GCS)

  • An object storage service that stores data within buckets.
  • Below is a sample Cloud Storage integration:


  • The data you upload on Cloud Storage are called objects.
  • An object is an immutable piece of data consisting of a file in any format.
  • You store objects inside containers called buckets.
  • All buckets belong to a project.
  • Each project can have multiple buckets.
  • You can also configure a Cloud Storage bucket to host a static website for a domain you own.
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Bucket Configurations

  • Life Cycle Management
    • You can define conditions that trigger data deletion, or transition to a cheaper storage class with object life cycle management.
  • Versioning
    • Continue to store old copies of objects you store when they are deleted or overwritten.
  • Retention Policies
    • Define minimum retention periods that objects must be stored.
  • Object holds
    • Place a hold on an object to prevent deletion.
  • Encryption keys
    • Customer-managed
    • Customer-supplied
  • Access Permissions
    • Access Control List
    • Uniform bucket level access
    • Object and Bucket Level Permissions

Storage Classes

  • Standard Storage
    • Good for hot data that is accessed frequently.
  • Nearline Storage
    • Good for use cases that need to store objects for at least 30 days.
    • Ideal for data that you plan to access once per month or less.
  • Coldline Storage
    • Is a low-cost storage option for storing infrequently accessed data within 90 days.
  • Archive Storage
    • Is the coldest storage among the storage classes.
    • Designed for storing archive data and disaster recovery data that is expected to be accessed once per 365 days or less.

gsutil tool

  • A Python application that enables you to manage your Cloud Storage from the command line.
  • You can use gsutil to perform bucket and object management tasks like:
    • creating and deleting buckets
    • uploading, downloading, and deleting objects
    • listing buckets and objects
    • moving, copying, and renaming objects
    • editing object and bucket ACL
  • gsutil performs all operations using HTTPS and TLS

Uploading objects to GCS

You can send upload requests to Google Cloud Storage via the following methods:

  • Simple Upload – utilize this if the file is small enough to upload again if the connection fails, and if there is no object metadata to send as part of the upload request.
  • Multipart Upload – utilize this if the file is small enough to upload again if the connection fails, and you need to include object metadata as part of the upload request.
  • Resumable Upload – utilize this for a more reliable transfer, which is especially important with large files.
  • Parallel composite uploads – utilize if network and disk speed are not limiting factors. When doing parallel composite upload, a file is divided into up to 32 chunks and uploaded in parallel to temporary objects. The final object is recreated using the temporary objects, and the temporary objects are deleted.
  • Alternatively, for uploading large volumes of data (from hundreds of terabytes up to 1 petabyte), you can utilize the Transfer Appliance. It is a hardware appliance you can use to securely migrate to Google Cloud Platform without disrupting business operations.


  • Pricing for Cloud Storage services is based on what you use, including:
    • the amount of data you store,
    • the duration for which you store it,
    • the number of operations you perform on your data,
    • the network resources used when moving or accessing your data.
  • For “cold” storage classes meant to store long-term, infrequently accessed data, there are also charges for retrieving data and early deletion of data.
  • You can require accessors of your data to include a project ID to bill for network charges, operation charges, and retrieval fees.


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